soon enjoy original content on Apple TV, but more importantly, YouTube became sort of a killer app for the new and hyped iPhone. According to a press release from Apple, YouTube had in fact begun to encode videos in the advanced H.264 format to achieve higher video quality and longer battery life on mobile devices. Initially, some 10,000 videos would be available, but YouTube promised to continue adding content each week until the full catalogue of videos was available in the H.264 format. 33 Apparently, YouTube made great efforts to hook up with the mobile community. Offering video services on mobile devices seems to have been a key opportunity for the company, and YouTubes partner Nokia serves as a case in point. Rumor has it that a Nokia cell phone due to the companys 40 percent share of the world market is currently the technological device producing the majority of media on a global scale. Consequently, there are innumerable blog posts, sites and online comments on mobile-media usage. For instance, a year ago, thenokiaguide. com stated that YouTube has made a huge impact on our Web 2.0 lives. Its popularity can best be seen from the amount of [Nokia] apps specically made for YouTube alone. In a time frame of just a few months we have not one but four apps: Mobitubia, Emtube, YTPlayer and the YouTube Java app. In addition to these, the blog mentioned the mobile YouTube site, as well as the option on some Nokia devices to watch clips directly from the browser with Flash Lite support. Since when did we have so many apps and services available for just one video service?34 306 307 Storage
The Internet is, of course, an optimal medium because of its decentralized network structure; in short, it is a cloud made up of different smaller clouds. However, in terms of IT infrastructure and databases that lie below the cloud, it does not seem rational anymore to build separate storage systems at individual archives, to use the ALM sector as an example. The current international trend among cultural-heritage institutions is certainly merging and centralization. 2 2 Storage
For the specic form of circular reference and activities within the user community, the structure of the YouTube page is important. It pools the activities of the prosumer and makes rapid links between videos possible. Without the portal function of YouTube, the circular activity of receiving, producing and commenting would be theoretically possible, but much more complicated, and thus not very enticing. Regarding the situation of reception, YouTube realizes in contrast to television a form 196 197 Form
While adding transitions between clips I'm sure you've noticed the Pan and Zoom gallery. Pan and Zoom effects (also known famously as the Ken Burns effect) mean viewing a static image as if it is a motion picture. The panning and zooming of the picture brings the illusion of motion. Let’s get down to basics. Step 1. Select a photo. Step 2. Click on the Animations tab, then click the More button on the Pan and Zoom gallery. Step 3. Choose your effect. If you are not sure, you can choose the Automatic effect and Movie Maker will pick one at random. If you want the same effect applied to all your photos, you can click the Apply to all button in the Pan and Zoom ribbon area. Step 4. After that, you will see a small icon in the upper left corner of the photo in the storyboard frame.
At the time when YouTube was purchased by Google, the site was delivering more than 100 million video views every day with 65,000 new videos uploaded daily. The same press release from Google also announced that the acquisition combined one of the largest and fastest growing online video entertainment communities with Googles expertise in organizing information and creating new models for advertising on the Internet. 7 Thus, from the beginning, Googles intentions seemed clear: to develop YouTubes potential for attracting advertising revenues. Since YouTube is a subsidiary of Google Inc., it remains important to examine the parent corporation more carefully. Founded in 1998 by Stanford PhD students Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Google began as a Web crawler or search engine that traverses the Web in search of requested information.8 The company grew rapidly and is now headquartered in Silicon Valley with 60 offices in over 20 countries. Googles organization currently includes various divisions such as Google.com Search and Personalization; Communication, Collaboration and Communities; Downloadable Applications; Google GEO Maps, Earth and Local; Google Checkout (online shopping); and Google Mobile. The main google.com site has been expanded to include special features, such as Image Search, Book Search, and Google Scholar provides a simple way to do a broad search for relevant scholarly literature, including peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles. Content in Google Scholar is taken from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, universities and other scholarly organizations. As is well known, the company has also developed a variety of other tools for users to create, share and communicate. Googles goal is to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful. To do this, the company relies on advertising to generate revenues. Their advertising strategies include content-targeted ads on google.com, as well as programs such as AdWords and AdSense, which help content owners to monetize their content by adding advertising to content, as well as other advertising strategies. Google is a public corporation meaning their stock is available to the public however, they have never paid dividends on common stock. In their latest report to the Securities and Exchange Commission, they stated: We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. 9 Control lies firmly in the hand of the founders, executive offi cers and directors, who hold so-called Class A common stock. Class B common stock and other equity interests represent approximately 70 percent of the voting power of the outstanding capital stock. At the end of 2007 the companys two founders and the CEO owned almost , 90 percent of outstanding Class B common stock, representing more than two thirds of the voting power. Larry, Sergey and Eric  have significant influence over management and affairs and over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of our company or its assets, for the foreseeable future, the most recent 10-K report states. This concentrated control limits our stockholders ability to influence corporate matters and, as a result, we may take actions that our stockholders do not view as beneficial. 10 Googles 34 3 Industry
Windows Movie Maker also offers a lot of visual effects to give you a deep set of visual flair.
Le Prince: The Ghost in the Tube The spectral presence of YouTube becomes especially interesting in the case of uploaded shots of pre-cinema lms. One can nd several of Etienne-Jules Mareys chronophotographic studies on YouTube, and since they were shot with a camera technique that recorded images at regular intervals, they can be easily synthesized for screening. The animation of Eadweard Muybridges series of instantaneous photographs are also found in the ether of YouTube. This article, however, will specically address the return of the lms of an inventor who himself is the true ghost of lm history: Louis Aim Augustin Le Prince, born in 1841 The content of any medium is always another medium, Marshall McLuhan once explained.7 The return of lm on YouTube in a different medium is, in the case of the inventor Le Prince, a resurrection of the pre-eminently ghostly gure of cinema. His name has always haunted lm history for two reasons. The lm cameras he invented are among the very rst in cinematic history, and he shot lms on photosensitive paper rolls as early as the fall of 1888. His cameras have survived and display a working mechanism devised at a very early stage. However, there are uncertainties concerning how his projector worked, and in patent applications and disputes with the famous inventors of cinema, such as the Lumire brothers and Edison, the description of the projector was considered insufcient. Our limited knowledge about Le Princes projector is most of all due to the second reason for his spectral position in lm history, his personal biography. Le Prince mysteriously disappeared on a train journey between Paris and Dijon in 1890. On YouTube, one can see all three of Le Princes lms from which frames have survived. There is a shot of the Leeds bridge in the summer of 1889, an image of an accordion player and a scene from the 318 319 Storage
Narrative self-reference: the rhizomatic branching or viral contagion propagating in all directions, while non-hierarchical and flat or lateral in its linkage, nonetheless seems to produce a surprisingly high degree of self-reflexivity and auto-referentiality, no doubt due to the effects of positive feedback. The demonstrations of chain reaction, mechanical concatenation, Pythagoras switches and falling dominoes are performative also in the sense that they either enact their own conditions of possibility or remediate a previous stage of their own mediality, as nostalgic or ironic pastiche and repetition. For instance, via the Pythagoras switch another meta-dimension emerged, which brought one of the core mechanisms of YouTube into view. One of the creators of the Pythagoras switch series is the video artist Sato Masahiko, one of whose installations, called Bubble Sort, I was linked to. The piece, which shows a line of people waiting, rearranging themselves according to size in fast-forward motion, completely baffled me, until its tags led to several other videos, also having to do with sorting. Masahikos video, it transpires, visualizes a popular sorting algorithm, called indeed bubblesort, explained on YouTube by tens of videos, all manually remediating or graphically interfacing the different sorting algorithms (insertion sort, selection sort, shell sorts, etc.), apparently a favorite pastime for first-year computer science students. The cast of characters, as we saw, included some well-known names, such as Rube Goldberg, Pythagoras, James Bond; oth ers become known because they sign their work: Antoine BardouJacquet, Fischli & Weiss, Tim Fort, Sato Masahiko; many more merely present themselves to the camera in low-resolution homemade videos. Thanks to all of them, however, the YouTube ways of showing and telling are ludic and reflexive, educational and participatory, empowering and humbling; in short: they mark an unusually soft dividing line between creative design and hard-core engineering, storytelling and role playing, singularity and repetition. To put this in the terms of another discourse, more germane to the post-human: it is to find oneself in the presence of strange organisms, pulsing, moving and mutating, depending on the tags one enters or encounters, as YouTube sorts, filters and aggregates the choices I am not even aware of making. That they cluster themselves semantically is partly a concession to the human interface, but partly also because of a special heuristic value: it is where the cultural noise of verbal language encounters the information of the mathematical program, providing the constructive instability of performed failure, and throwing the grit of human creativity and dirt of human unpredictability into the machinery of perfect human-machine adaptation. The traditional asymmetry of the single point of origin (the author, the narrator) addressing a potentially infinite number of readers or viewer was already deconstructed by Roland Barthes writerly text and many other narratologists since. Hence, the multiple authorship of the YouTube tales, when joining up with the selectivity and serendipity of the user, make YouTube a very writerly experience. But the mode of address that I am trying to focus on is also different from the writerly in that it creates an empty space of enunciation, to be filled by the anonymous, but also plural me. On the one hand, a site like YouTube is inherently addictive, as one video drags one along to another and another and another. Yet after an hour or so, one realizes how precariously balanced and delicately poised one is, between the joy of discovering the unexpected, the marvelous and occasionally even the miraculous, and the rapid descent into an equally palpable anxiety, staring into the void of an unimaginable number of videos, with their proliferation of images, their banality or obscenity in sounds and commentary. Right next to 12 13 Form