Top 10 Electronics tips

Use your breadboard to hold up your perf board

Contact wear on lightning connectors looks like dirt (but it’s not)


Capable of operating without an external power source. Typical passive components are resistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes (although the latter are a special case).


Requiring a source of power to operate. Includes transistors (all types), integrated circuits (all types), TRIACs, SCRs, LEDs, etc.


Direct Current. The electrons flow in one direction only. Current flow is from negative to positive, although it is often more convenient to think of it as from positive to negative. This is sometimes referred to as “conventional” current as opposed to electron flow.


Alternating Current. The electrons flow in both directions in a cyclic manner – first one way, then the other. The rate of change of direction determines the frequency, measured in Hertz (cycles per second).


Unit is Hertz, Symbol is Hz, old symbol was cps (cycles per second). A complete cycle is completed when the AC signal has gone from zero volts to one extreme, back through zero volts to the opposite extreme, and returned to zero. The accepted audio range is from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. The number of times the signal completes a complete cycle in one second is the frequency.


Unit is Volts, Symbol is V or U, old symbol was E . Voltage is the “pressure” of electricity, or “electromotive force” (hence the old term E). A 9V battery has a voltage of 9V DC, and may be positive or negative depending on the terminal that is used as the reference. The mains has a voltage of 220, 240 or 110V depending where you live – this is AC, and alternates between positive and negative values. Voltage is also commonly measured in millivolts (mV), and 1,000 mV is 1V. Microvolts (uV) and nanovolts (nV) are also used.


Unit is Amperes (Amps), Symbol is I . Current is the flow of electricity (electrons). No current flows between the terminals of a battery or other voltage supply unless a load is connected. The magnitude of the current is determined by the available voltage, and the resistance (or impedance) of the load and the power source. Current can be AC or DC, positive or negative, depending upon the reference. For electronics, current may also be measured in mA (milliamps) – 1,000 mA is 1A. Nanoamps (nA) are also used in some cases.


Unit is Ohms, Symbol is R or Ω . Resistance is a measure of how easily (or with what difficulty) electrons will flow through the device. Copper wire has a very low resistance, so a small voltage will allow a large current to flow. Likewise, the plastic insulation has a very high resistance, and prevents current from flowing from one wire to those adjacent. Resistors have a defined resistance, so the current can be calculated for any voltage. Resistance in passive devices is always positive (i.e. > 0)